Andrew M. Napper


B.Sc., University College of Wales, Swansea, U.K
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh


Dr. Andy Napper is a physical chemist who teaches both freshman level chemistry courses (CHEM1121/1141/1142) and the senior level physical chemistry sequence (CHEM4431/4432).

Dr. Napper is currently the secretary for the Central Ohio Valley American Chemical Society local section, and has several different undergraduate research projects on the go.

Undergraduate Research Projects

1. Construction of CdSe Quantum Dot Photovoltaic Cells

CdSe quantum dots of various sizes were prepared using a previously published procedure. These quantum dots were physisorbed onto a nanocrystalline rutile TiO2 layer and a photovoltaic cell was constructed using two layers of ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) doped glass, a graphite electrode, and I2/I3 electrolyte. iV (current-voltage) curves were measured and used to calculate efficiency.
Alkane thiols of various lengths, ω terminated with the COOH functional group, were used to covalently attach the quantum dots to the TiO2 layer. Efficiencies were compared with the physisorbed system.

Photovoltaic cell construction 
Photovoltaic cell construction

Vials Containing Synthesized CdSe Quantum Dots
Vials Containing Synthesized CdSe Quantum Dots

Fluorescent Properties of CdSe Quantum Dots
Fluorescent Properties of CdSe Quantum Dots

2. Analysis of Banknotes for Cocaine Using Single-Ion-Mode (SIM) Gas-Chromatograph/Mass-Spectrometry (GC/MS)

Cocaine was extracted from $5, $10, and $20 bills using dilute HCl, followed by treatment with dilute NH3. The cocaine was concentrated using a C-18 solid phase extraction column, followed by elution with methanol. Injection of a 1 µL sample into a GC-MS allowed for identification of cocaine. After a standard curve was constructed, it was possible to determine how much cocaine was present on each bank note. Amounts ranging from nanograms (10–9 g) to micrograms (10–3 g) were detected on each note.

Chemical structure of cocaine
Chemical Structure of Cocaine

3. Construction of a Diode-Laser Light-Scattering Spectrometer and the Determination of Kinetic Parameters of Colloidal Sulfur Formation

A diode-laser light scattering spectrometer was constructed using a previously published procedure. Colloidal sulfur was generated using the reaction between dilute HCl and Na2S2O3, and the kinetics of sulfur formation was generated by measuring scattered laser light intensity vs. time.

Experimental Set-Up (Side-View)
Experimental Set-Up (Side-View)

Experimental Set-Up (Top-View)
Experimental Set-Up (Top-View)

4. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Polyatomic Gases

HCl(g), HBr(g), HI(g), and C2H2(g), along with the isotopomers DCl, DBr, DI, and C2D2 were generated and collected in an IR gas cell. High resolution (0.5 cm–1) FTIR spectra were collected, and rotational-vibrational (ro-vib) parameters were calculated by analysis of the P-(Q)-R branches of the ro-vib spectra.

5. Fusel Alcohol Concentration as a Function of Fermentation Temperature Monitored Using GC/MS

Fermentation of sugars at elevated temperatures leads to generation of undesirable fusel alcohols. These fusel alcohols contribute to an off-taste of distilled spirits, as well as contributing to hang-overs. This project investigated the fermentation of glucose using brewers yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at various temperatures and fermentation times. Concentrations of the fusel alcohols: 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol were determined by injection of 1 µL samples into a GC/MS, and analyzed using an internal standard.



  1. N. Balabai, B. Linton, A. Napper, S. Priyadarshy, A. P. Sukharevsky, and D. H. Waldeck; “Orientational Dynamics of β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B; 1998; 102(48); 9617 – 9624.
    DOI: 10.1021/jp982756e
  2. I. Read, A. Napper, R. Kaplan, M. B. Zimmt, and D. H. Waldeck; “Solvent-Mediated Electronic Coupling: The Role of Solvent Placement,” Journal of the American Chemical Society; 1999; 121(47); 10976 – 10986.
    DOI: 10.1021/ja992281k
  3. I. Read, A. Napper, M. B. Zimmt, and D. H. Waldeck; “Electron Transfer in Aromatic Solvents: The Importance of Quadrupolar Interactions,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry A; 2000; 104(41); 9385 – 9394.
    DOI: 10.1021/jp001727c
  4. A. M. Napper, I. Read, and D. H. Waldeck, Nicholas J. Head, Anna M. Oliver, and M. N. Paddon-Row; “An Unequivocal Demonstration of the Importance of Nonbonded Contacts in the Electronic Coupling between Electron Donor and Acceptor Units of Donor-Bridge-Acceptor Molecules,” Journal of the American Chemical Society; 2000; 122(21); 5220 – 5221.
    DOI: 10.1021/ja000611r
  5. R. W. Kaplan, A. M. Napper, D. H. Waldeck, and M. B. Zimmt; “Solvent Mediated Coupling Across 1 nm: Not a π Bond in Sight,” Journal of the American Chemical Society; 2000; 122(48); 12039 – 12040.
    DOI: 10.1021/ja002264r
  6. A. M. Napper, H. Liu, and D. H. Waldeck; “The Nature of Electronic Coupling through Insulating Barriers on Au Electrodes. The Importance of Chain Composition, Interchain Coupling, and Quantum Interference,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B.; 2001; 105(32); 7699 – 7707.
    DOI: 10.1021/jp0105140
  7. R. Kaplan, A. M. Napper, D. H. Waldeck, and M. B. Zimmt; “The Role Played by Orbital Energetics in Solvent Mediated Electronic Coupling,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry A.; 2002; 106(10); 1917 – 1925.
    DOI: 10.1021/jp011603f
  8. A. M. Napper, I. Read, D. H. Waldeck, R. W. Kaplan, and M. B. Zimmt; “Electron Transfer Reactions of C-shaped Molecules in Alkylated Aromatic Solvents: Evidence that the Effective Electronic Coupling Magnitude Is Temperature-Dependent,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry A.; 2002; 106(18); 4784 – 4793.
    DOI: 10.1021/jp0204455
  9. A. M. Napper, I. Read, R. Kaplan; M. B. Zimmt, and D. H. Waldeck; “Solvent Mediated Superexchange in a C-Clamp Shaped Donor-Bridge-Acceptor Molecule: The Correlation between Solvent Electron Affinity and Electronic Coupling,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry A.; 2002; 106(21); 5288 – 5296.
    DOI: 10.1021/jp014529+
  10. A. M. Napper, N. J. Head, A. M. Oliver, M. J. Shephard, M. N. Paddon-Row, I. Read, and D. H. Waldeck; “Use of U-shaped Donor-Bridge-Acceptor Molecules To Study Electron Tunneling through Nonbonded Contacts,” Journal of the American Chemical Society; 2002;124(34); 10171 – 10181.
    DOI: 10.1021/ja025683s
  11. A. M. Napper, Haiying Liu, H. Yamamoto, D. Khoshtariya, and D. H. Waldeck; “Effect of Molecular Properties on Electron Transmission through Organic Monolayer films” in “Molecules as components of electronic devices”; Marya Lieberman, editor; ACS Symposium Series 844; American Chemical Society: New York, NY; 2003, 62 – 75
    DOI: 10.1021/bk-2003-0844.ch006

Faculty by Discipline

Contact Information

Department of Natural Sciences
940 Second Street
Portsmouth, OH 45662

Dr. Andy Napper, Chairperson
Sharon Messer, Secretary

Phone: (740) 351-3456
Fax: (740) 351-3596 or

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