Andrew M. Napper
- B.Sc., University College of Wales, Swansea, U.K
Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh
Dr. Andy Napper is a physical chemist who teaches both freshman level chemistry courses (CHEM1121/1141/1142) and the senior level physical chemistry sequence (CHEM4431/4432).
Dr. Napper is currently the secretary for the Central Ohio Valley American Chemical Society local section, and has several different undergraduate research projects on the go.
Undergraduate Research Projects
1. Construction of CdSe Quantum Dot Photovoltaic Cells
CdSe quantum dots of various sizes were prepared using a previously published procedure.
These quantum dots were physisorbed onto a nanocrystalline rutile TiO2 layer and a photovoltaic cell was constructed using two layers of ITO (Indium Tin
Oxide) doped glass, a graphite electrode, and I2/I3– electrolyte. iV (current-voltage) curves were measured and used to calculate efficiency.
Alkane thiols of various lengths, ω terminated with the COOH functional group, were used to covalently attach the quantum dots to the TiO2 layer. Efficiencies were compared with the physisorbed system.
Photovoltaic cell construction
Vials Containing Synthesized CdSe Quantum Dots
Fluorescent Properties of CdSe Quantum Dots
2. Analysis of Banknotes for Cocaine Using Single-Ion-Mode (SIM) Gas-Chromatograph/Mass-Spectrometry (GC/MS)
Cocaine was extracted from $5, $10, and $20 bills using dilute HCl, followed by treatment with dilute NH3. The cocaine was concentrated using a C-18 solid phase extraction column, followed by elution with methanol. Injection of a 1 µL sample into a GC-MS allowed for identification of cocaine. After a standard curve was constructed, it was possible to determine how much cocaine was present on each bank note. Amounts ranging from nanograms (10–9 g) to micrograms (10–3 g) were detected on each note.
Chemical Structure of Cocaine
3. Construction of a Diode-Laser Light-Scattering Spectrometer and the Determination of Kinetic Parameters of Colloidal Sulfur Formation
A diode-laser light scattering spectrometer was constructed using a previously published procedure. Colloidal sulfur was generated using the reaction between dilute HCl and Na2S2O3, and the kinetics of sulfur formation was generated by measuring scattered laser light intensity vs. time.
Experimental Set-Up (Side-View)
Experimental Set-Up (Top-View)
4. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Polyatomic Gases
HCl(g), HBr(g), HI(g), and C2H2(g), along with the isotopomers DCl, DBr, DI, and C2D2 were generated and collected in an IR gas cell. High resolution (0.5 cm–1) FTIR spectra were collected, and rotational-vibrational (ro-vib) parameters were calculated by analysis of the P-(Q)-R branches of the ro-vib spectra.
5. Fusel Alcohol Concentration as a Function of Fermentation Temperature Monitored Using GC/MS
Fermentation of sugars at elevated temperatures leads to generation of undesirable fusel alcohols. These fusel alcohols contribute to an off-taste of distilled spirits, as well as contributing to hang-overs. This project investigated the fermentation of glucose using brewers yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at various temperatures and fermentation times. Concentrations of the fusel alcohols: 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol were determined by injection of 1 µL samples into a GC/MS, and analyzed using an internal standard.
- N. Balabai, B. Linton, A. Napper, S. Priyadarshy, A. P. Sukharevsky, and D. H. Waldeck;
“Orientational Dynamics of β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B; 1998; 102(48); 9617 – 9624.
- I. Read, A. Napper, R. Kaplan, M. B. Zimmt, and D. H. Waldeck; “Solvent-Mediated Electronic
Coupling: The Role of Solvent Placement,” Journal of the American Chemical Society; 1999; 121(47); 10976 – 10986.
- I. Read, A. Napper, M. B. Zimmt, and D. H. Waldeck; “Electron Transfer in Aromatic
Solvents: The Importance of Quadrupolar Interactions,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry A; 2000; 104(41); 9385 – 9394.
- A. M. Napper, I. Read, and D. H. Waldeck, Nicholas J. Head, Anna M. Oliver, and M.
N. Paddon-Row; “An Unequivocal Demonstration of the Importance of Nonbonded Contacts
in the Electronic Coupling between Electron Donor and Acceptor Units of Donor-Bridge-Acceptor
Molecules,” Journal of the American Chemical Society; 2000; 122(21); 5220 – 5221.
- R. W. Kaplan, A. M. Napper, D. H. Waldeck, and M. B. Zimmt; “Solvent Mediated Coupling
Across 1 nm: Not a π Bond in Sight,” Journal of the American Chemical Society; 2000; 122(48); 12039 – 12040.
- A. M. Napper, H. Liu, and D. H. Waldeck; “The Nature of Electronic Coupling through
Insulating Barriers on Au Electrodes. The Importance of Chain Composition, Interchain
Coupling, and Quantum Interference,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B.; 2001; 105(32); 7699 – 7707.
- R. Kaplan, A. M. Napper, D. H. Waldeck, and M. B. Zimmt; “The Role Played by Orbital
Energetics in Solvent Mediated Electronic Coupling,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry A.; 2002; 106(10); 1917 – 1925.
- A. M. Napper, I. Read, D. H. Waldeck, R. W. Kaplan, and M. B. Zimmt; “Electron Transfer
Reactions of C-shaped Molecules in Alkylated Aromatic Solvents: Evidence that the
Effective Electronic Coupling Magnitude Is Temperature-Dependent,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry A.; 2002; 106(18); 4784 – 4793.
- A. M. Napper, I. Read, R. Kaplan; M. B. Zimmt, and D. H. Waldeck; “Solvent Mediated
Superexchange in a C-Clamp Shaped Donor-Bridge-Acceptor Molecule: The Correlation
between Solvent Electron Afﬁnity and Electronic Coupling,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry A.; 2002; 106(21); 5288 – 5296.
- A. M. Napper, N. J. Head, A. M. Oliver, M. J. Shephard, M. N. Paddon-Row, I. Read,
and D. H. Waldeck; “Use of U-shaped Donor-Bridge-Acceptor Molecules To Study Electron
Tunneling through Nonbonded Contacts,” Journal of the American Chemical Society; 2002;124(34); 10171 – 10181.
- A. M. Napper, Haiying Liu, H. Yamamoto, D. Khoshtariya, and D. H. Waldeck; “Effect
of Molecular Properties on Electron Transmission through Organic Monolayer ﬁlms” in
“Molecules as components of electronic devices”; Marya Lieberman, editor; ACS Symposium
Series 844; American Chemical Society: New York, NY; 2003, 62 – 75